Nishiguchi, S. et al. (2017). Theatrical approach: Designing human-like behaviour in humanoid robots


Nishiguchi, S., Ogawa, K., Yoshikawa, Y., Chikaraishi, T., Hirata, O., & Ishiguro, H. (2017). Theatrical approach: Designing human-like behaviour in humanoid robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 89, 158–166. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2016.11.017

Notes:

p.158: contemporary colloquial theatre theory (CCTT), which is a method for staging and instructing human actors. Instructions based on CCTT are characteristically and highly focused on reproducing examples of daily human interaction. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.158: Such precise instructions are expected to be compatible and directly applicable to humanoid robots, and instructing robots in this way has actually been attempted in the robot theatre project. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.158: As a result, the ability of robots to behave in a natural humanlike manner in stage plays has been extensively appreciated, — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.159: most audience members feel that robots exhibit natural human-like behaviour — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.159: Acting instructions for robots based on CCTT are expected to involve hints for robot designers to make humanoid robots behave in more natural ways — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.159: Some members of the audience forget that robots are performing on the stage, as they act very human-like. Although the robots do not have emotion and are not even intelligent, people feel that the robots possess emotion and intelligence and in fact, a number of people are moved by the robots’ performance and cry. Therefore, a robot’s performance was analysed to obtain essential rules that would endow robots with natural human-like behaviour. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.159: very difficult for nonprofessionals to endow the robots with natural human-like mannerisms; only certain professionals, such as some stage directors, who are familiar with how humans move, and researchers in robotics are capable of achieving it. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.159: A humanoid robot and at most four human actors interact with one another on the stage. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.159: humanoid robot, Robovie-R3, played the role of Campanella, who is one of the friends of the main character, — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: protocol of conversation would be complicated. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: Therefore, we focus on the stage play, where the noise of interaction is eliminated, to extract the knowledge for appropriate timing of speech for a humanoid robot. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: CCTT incorporates rules that create natural and humanlike behaviour, not only for human actors but also for humanoid robots — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: timing between a humanoid robot’s moving and speaking is critical to creating natural behaviour. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: we analysed the relationship between the robot’s sequences of motions and utterances in this stage play from the perspective of timing. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: how the timing between motion and speech differs depending on the social situation portrayed in a scene, namely the number of participants in a conversation. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: bodily features enable it to produce nonverbal messages for communication purposes such as making eye contact with its interlocutor, nodding its head, and waving its hand. A speaker device embedded into its chest is used to produce the utterances of the robot. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: teleoperate — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: operator is needed to trigger to play a preprogrammed motion file and audio data at appropriate timings by using a graphical user interface — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: effect of turn-taking of utterances and the flow of conversation — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: Movement-first behaviour is considered to facilitatenatural turn-taking because it visually represents one’s intention to speak to others before one actually does speak. In other words, movement-first behaviour is effective in reducing simultaneous speech, in turn reducing collisions during the conversation. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: instructions are expected to be directly applicable to designing robot behaviour. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.160: Gaze is used to regulate turn-taking in conversation between two persons — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.161: The results indicate that the timing of the robot’s motion and utterance should be adjusted according to the number of participants in the interaction. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.161: The novice designed more utterance-first behaviour than movementfirst behaviour in both scenes. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.161: To verify that this rule is consistent in CCTT, we created two short plays with almost the same script as the first play but with different numbers of participants in the conversation, and we compared the instructions for these short plays with those for Night On The Milky Way Train, for the purpose of verification — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.161: R1: When a robot interacts with one person, it should exhibit utterance-first behaviour.R2: When a robot interacts with more than one person, it should exhibit movement-first behaviour. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.162: All these rules can be applied directly to a humanoid robot because they are not abstract. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.163: This implies that his instructions are based on his aesthetic sense and that these types of rules are implicit even to himself. This in turn suggests that the analysis of scenes is a feasible approach to reveal such hidden rules for human-like behaviour. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.163: conducted an experiment in which subjects evaluated video clips of stage plays to verify that the rules we had extracted were effective in designing natural and human-like robot behaviour. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.164: results show that the rules derived in this study can be applied to the design of robot behaviour by novices with the assistance of the instructive function. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.164: the results also show that the application of this function results in robot behaviour designs that are more natural and human-like. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.164: we adopted naturalness and anthropomorphism as evaluation criteria. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.164: we analysed the behaviour of a robot on the stage and the instructions given by a professional stage director to derive effective rules for designing natural and human-like humanoid robot behaviour. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.164: It is normally difficult to reveal this type of knowledge, but using our approach, we acquired some knowledge and identified it in the form of rules applicable to humanoid robots directly. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.164: The result shows that MB was significantly better evaluated in both scenes with respect to all five subscales. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.165: we focused on the conversation by making a simple script and eliminated biases — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017

p.165: We believe that the insight into the human-like behaviour of robots and the system to use the knowledge will lead to more creative and artistic work; the more such plays we create, the more we can understand human-like behaviour of robots as wellas the more a performance becomes aesthetic. — Highlighted Feb 4, 2017