Dutton, W.H., Cheong, P.H., & Park, N. (2004). The Social Shaping of a Virtual Learning Environment: The Case of a University-wide Course Management System. Electronic Journal of e-learning. vol. 2 (2) pp. 69-80
A characteristic of higher education culture throughout the world is that instructors generally teach the way they were taught: using a traditional one-many teaching paradigm based on class lectures and discussion. With notable exceptions, such as the one on one tutorial approach, this paradigm is entrenched in most university cultures, which generally tie teaching rewards to the quality of lectures and discussion. These paradigms are key influences shaping outcomes from the introduction of a VLE and other ICTs within institutions of higher education.
Two aspects of the culture of campus-based higher education can constrain innovation outcomes: the strength of entrenched values underpinning university teaching and the degree to which students and systems of teaching evaluation can discourage risk taking in the classroom.